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02 May 2007

Info : 2-5 % Penduduk Indonesia Menderita Asma

(www.depkes.go.id, Selasa 01 Mei 2007)
Menurut WHO, sebanyak 100 hingga 150 juta penduduk dunia adalah penyandang Asma. Jumlah ini terus bertambah sebanyak 180.000 orang setiap tahunnya. Di Indonesia prevalensi Asma belum diketahui secara pasti, namun diperkirakan 2 – 5 % penduduk Indonesia menderita Asma.


Penyakit Asma dapat mengenai segala usia dan jenis kelamin. Pada anak-anak, penderita laki-laki lebih banyak daripada perempuan, sedangkan pada usia dewasa terjadi sebaliknya. Sementara angka kejadian Asma pada anak dan bayi lebih tinggi daripada orang dewasa.

Asma pada anak dapat mempengaruhi masa pertumbuhan, tergantung dari klasifikasi berat ringan episodenya. Anak dengan Asma yang sering kambuh, dapat menyebabkan turunnya prestasi belajar yang merupakan dasar terjadinya lost generation. Dari penelitian pada anak sekolah usia 13 – 14 tahun, diketahui prevalensi Asma sebesar 2,1% pada tahun 1995. Jumlah ini meningkat menjadi 5,2% pada tahun 2003. Sementara hasil survei di Medan, Palembang, Jakarta, Bandung, Semarang, Yogyakarta, Malang dan Denpasar menunjukkan prevalensi Asma pada anak SD usia 6 – 12 tahun berkisar antara 3,7% - 6,4%. Berdasarkan gambaran ini, terlihat bahwa Asma telah menjadi masalah kesehatan masyarakat yang perlu mendapat perhatian serius.

Demikian sambutan Menteri Kesehatan yang dibacakan oleh Direktur Jenderal Pengendalian Penyakit dan Penyehatan Lingkungan (PP & PL) pada acara bakti sosial dalam rangka menyambut Hari Asma Sedunia di Kelurahan Penjagalan, Jakarta Utara, Minggu, 29 April 2007. Acara diisi dengan pengobatan cuma-cuma kepada 500 warga kurang mampu di wilayah Jakarta Utara.

Berbeda dengan orang dewasa yang dapat mengendalikan Asma, pada anak dibutuhkan peran orang tua baik dalam pengobatan maupun dalam menghindari faktor pencetus.
Menurut dr. Acmad Hardiman, penanganan Asma pada anak secara dini dan tepat, dapat menghindari berkembangnya Asma pada saat dewasa. Bila terkontrol, anak yang menderita Asma tetap dapat beraktivitas seperti orang normal.

Asma tidak menular. Penderita biasanya memiliki tanda gejala episodik berulang berupa mengi (bengek), batuk, sesak napas, dan rasa berat di dada terutama pada malam atau dini hari. Sebagian besar orang dapat mengenali gejala Asma ini.

Sebagai upaya menekan angka kesakitan, ketidakmampuan, dan kematian akibat asma, perlu dilakukan pencegahan primer yang dapat dilakukan sejak dari dalam kandungan. Namun pemberian pemahaman tentang faktor risiko dan pengobatan Asma kepada penderita adalah langkah terbaik untuk mengendalikan Asma selain penyediaan dan pemberian pelayanan kesehatan yang bermutu dan terjangkau. Pada anak, pengendalian Asma bertujuan untuk mempertahankan tumbuh kembang anak yang optimal.

Meski hingga kini penyebab Asma belum diketahui dengan pasti, namun penderita dapat menghindar dari faktor risiko. Beberapa faktor risiko diantaranya asap rokok, iritan (parfum, bau-bauan merangsang), ekspresi emosi yang berlebihan, perubahan cuaca, polusi udara, binatang (kecoa), tepung sari bunga, jamur, diet dan obat. Agar dapat beraktivitas dengan aman, penderita Asma dapat melakukan beberapa hal berikut:
1. Kenali dan hindari pencetus Asma,
2. Bersihkan rumah dari debu secara rutin, terutama kamar tidur dan tempat tidur,
3. Batasi pemakaian karpet di dalam rumah,
4. Hindari keadaan yangdapat membuat stres secara emosional,
5. Bila menggunakan inhaler, gunakan selalu obat inhaler sebelum memulai aktivitas,
6. Bila cuaca dingin, usahakan aktivitas dilakukan di dalam ruang. Gunakan masker/penutup hidung untuk mengurangi suhu dingin,
7. Bila memiliki riwayat alergi, hindari polusi,
8. Batasi aktivitas bila sedang mengalami infeksi virus seperti flu,
9. Pastikan mengantongi obat inhaler selama beraktivitas untuk mencegah serangan asma sewaktu waktu.

Berita ini disiarkan oleh Pusat Komunikasi Publik, Sekretariat Jenderal Departemen Kesehatan. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut dapat menghubungi telepon/faks: 021-522 3002 atau e-mail puskom.depkes@gmail.com.

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